T3 is also known as triiodothyronine, a thyroid hormone. It is related to some other thyroid hormone, Thyroxine, or T4. Thyroxine is the precursor of T4 and the production of both hormones is signaled in the thyroid gland by TSH or thyroid-stimulating hormone. The thyroid-stimulating hormone is released from the pituitary gland and forms responses loop with both T3 and T4.
Therefore, when the plasma levels of the thyroid hormone fall, TSH production is increased and when the thyroid hormones go above their normal plasma levels, TSH production is reduced. The control over the discharge of TSH itself is found in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is released from the hypothalamus. T3 is 20% of the amount of thyroid hormones synthesized. The other 80% is thyroxine. However, in the plasma, T3 is 2.5% of the circulating thyroid hormones. It generally does not last as long as thyroxine (the time taken for T3 focus to lessen to half is 2.5 times, while for T4, that right time is 6.5 days). Furthermore, the majority of the T3 within circulation is produced from T4.
By simply eliminating an iodine atom in a particular position on the T4 molecule, T3 is produced. The enzymes accountable for converting T4 to T3 are found in various parts of the physical body including the thyroid, kidney, liver, adipose cells, placenta, center, central nervous system, and even the pituitary gland. Though T3 can be produced from T4 Even, the body still makes triiodothyronine directly.
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This is performed in the lumen of the thyroid gland. The synthesis proceeds with the addition of iodine atoms to tyrosine to create monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). These reactions require hydrogen peroxide continue. MIT and DIT then combine in a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme called thyroid peroxidase collectively. The product of the combination is T3.
The biological effects of T3 are considerable and the hormone contributes to virtually all the physiological processes in the human body. For example, T3 affects heart rate, the rate of metabolism, the body’s temperature and development rate. In the bloodstream, T3 binds to specific types of carrier proteins: serum albumin (with low affinity) and thyroid-binding globulin (with high affinity). These molecules raise the stability and longevity of T3 but impede the uptake of the hormone by tissues. For T3 to pass through tissues, it must shed its carrier protein.
To produce its biological effects, T3 binds to thyroid receptors in tissues. In addition, since it is fat-soluble, it can mix into cells through their phospholipid layers. T3 is available in most tissues, although it is notably absent in the cells of the testes and spleen. Its overall effect depends upon the part of the body, where it acts.